Engels summarizes effectively as follows : “This solution can only consist in the practical recognition of the social nature of the modern forces of production, appropriation, and exchange with the socialized character of the means of production. Its most immediate effect was to so cheapen goods produced by the more advanced methods that the older, individual producers found it impossible to compete and dropped out.
In the History of Philosophy Hegel had written "It is not so much from as through slavery that man acquired freedom." Meanwhile, the dialectic as a mode of reasoning was discovered and used, he points out, by the greatest of the ancient Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle; and in modern times it has been used successfully by such philosophers as Descartes and Spinoza, and among other French intellectuals, by Diderot and Rousseau. Just as under the handicraft system the owner of the tool became the owner of the product, so under the new scheme the owner of the factory and the machine made the same claim.
economics. Create an account in a few clicks or log in to continue. Both Hegel and Marx insisted that there was reason behind the dialectical process and it is not guided and motivated by any external or any other force. David McLellan explains it thus: In the opening sections of the Phenomenology of Mind Hegel attacked the views of, common sense and simplified natural science that the world consisted of discrete objects, independent of man’s consciousness. What must be eliminated to
Idea and metaphysics failed to allure Marx.
The same principle applied to the world of culture in which such spheres as art, and religion, if viewed as independent of man, constituted so many alienations to be overcome. The serfs did not require supervision as slaves did. is influenced by Hegel: (1) Individualism is a Forms of property are a symptom of the
This is true of all Thus capitalism is characterized by a continual and ever more desperate search for more markets. Hegel begins his division with the broad generalization that “History moves from East to West.” The basic principle of its movement is succinctly stated as follows: “The East knew and to the present day knows only that One is Free; the Greek and Roman world, that Some are Free; the German world knows that All are Free. At the. The difference between the two is the surplus
Especially the terminology of the Marxists becomes intelligible only when approached through its Hegelian origin. PROFIT = SURPLUS VALUE = History is the product of causal relations According to the Marxists, in all societies, and at all periods, the outward and complicated customs and institutions which sup-ply color and character to a people derive their essential nature from the economic structure, of which they are but the faithful reflections. It is true that the Absolute Spirit is not an empirically based concept. Hegel had simply interpreted the history dialectically but he did not suggest how to change the history as well as society. 4. No feature of the two systems brings out more clearly the vast gulf between them, the fundamentally different point of view; though, on the other hand, no feature shows better the striking resemblance, the close logical relationship. Marx borrowed this concept of dialectic from Hegel and applied it to the explanation of society. This is the type of reasoning by which Hegel reaches the conclusion that reality is fully expressed in the system of philosophy, and it is for Hegel but a characteristic and easy step to the further result that the system of philosophy is the Hegelian system. The split in the philosophic category of the Absolute into two, like the split of the economic category of labor into labor as activity and labor-power as commodity, forged new weapons of comprehension. Hegel, however, made a most valuable contribution, when for the first time, he propounded an evolutionary view of history. But with the taking over by society of the productive forces, the social character of the means of production and of the products will be utilized by the producers with a perfect understanding of its nature, and instead of being a source of disturbance and periodical collapse, will become the most powerful lever of production itself.” Thus, the one all important end to be attained is the resolution of the fundamental contradiction between social production and individual appropriation by instituting an organization of social ownership to correspond with the method of production. No wonder, all disciples of Hegel gave in to his concept of alienation. The Philosophy of Mind is in its turn divided into three sections, or categories: “mind subjective,” that is, the development of the individual mind; “mind objective,” or the history of man, and the nature of his social institutions; “absolute mind,” or the supreme union or synthesis of the individual and the social as it is attained in the three highest spheres of man – art, religion, and philosophy. Hegel is an idealist; Marx is a materialist, and the social philosophy of each is intimately bound up with and dependent upon its own peculiar metaphysical basis. On the other hand, in Engels’ Landmarks of Scientific Socialism there is a very clear statement to the effect that, though it is unnecessary for proof of a future communism to rely on pure abstract, logical deduction, it is worth observing that the conclusions arrived at by them on concrete material grounds conform with the pure outline of the dialectic.
The concrete unity of these two factors (there must be a unification or resolution of all such antagonistic elements) is Liberty under conditions of the morality of the state. The notion that history conforms to a “ dialectical” pattern, according to which contradictions generated at one level are overcome or transcended at the next, was incorporated—though in a radically new form—in the theory of social change propounded by Karl Marx.
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