The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. In 1977 Somalia invaded, trying to annex the Ogaden region, but were pushed back by Ethiopian, Soviet, and Cuban forces. The Emperor declared Eritrea the fourteenth province of Ethiopia in 1962. He came to the notice of the ruling Regent, Ras Ali, and his mother Empress Menen Liben Amede (wife of the Emperor Yohannes III). The Italians now came on the scene.  Many Oromo entered in emperor Susenyos' domain in response.  Gedeo–Oromo clashes between the Oromo and the Gedeo people in the south of the country led to Ethiopia having the largest number of people to flee their homes in the world in 2018, with 1.4 million newly displaced people. The reunification of Ethiopia began with the rule of Emperor Tewodros. During this time of religious strife Ethiopian philosophy flourished, and it was during this period that the philosophers Zera Yacob and Walda Heywat lived. ", Richard Pankhurst, "Education in Ethiopia during the Italian fascist occupation (1936-1941). Several important finds have propelled Ethiopia and the surrounding region to the forefront of palaeontology. Wolde Selassie was eventually the victor, and practically ruled the whole country till his death in 1816 at the age of eighty. , After a period of civil unrest that began in February 1974, a provisional administrative council of soldiers, known as the Derg ("committee"), seized power from the aging Emperor Haile Selassie I on September 12, 1974, and installed a government that was socialist in name and military in style. During the sixteenth century, the expeditions of Ahmad Gragn ravaged Ethiopia. Before the coup, Ethiopian peasants' way of life was thoroughly influenced by the church teachings; 280 days a year are religious feasts or days of rest. So when emperor Iyasu I tried to attack the Oromo, he was convinced by local Amharic rulers to back down. Nobles came to abuse their positions by making emperors, and encroached upon the succession of the dynasty, by candidates among the nobility itself: e.g. At one point during the next century, the last of Yodit's successors were overthrown by an Agaw lord named Mara Takla Haymanot, who founded the Zagwe dynasty (named after the Agaw people who ruled during this time) and married a female descendant of the Aksumite monarchs ("son-in-law") or previous ruler. Empress Mentewab was crowned co-ruler upon the succession of her son (a first for a woman in Ethiopia) in 1730, and held unprecedented power over government during his reign. This the Emperor refused to do, and at length Bermudes was obliged to make his way out of the country.  In 2010 fossilised animal bones, that were 3.4 million years old, were found with stone-tool-inflicted marks on them in the Lower Awash Valley by an international team, led by Shannon McPherron, which is the oldest evidence of stone tool use ever found anywhere in the world. The last king known to mint coins is Armah, whose coinage refers to the Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614 CE. He was trained there in Tewodros's service, and then placed in comfortable detention at the fortress of Magdala.  The last major Somali regular units left the Ogaden March 15, 1978. On his return with some of the Israelite priests, however, he found that Zadok's son had stolen the real Ark of the Covenant. The present territory was consolidated during the 19th and 20th centuries as European powers encroached into Ethiopia’s historical domain.  In 2019, further evidence of Middle Stone Age complex projectile weapons was found at Aduma, also in Ethiopia, dated 100,000-80,000 years ago, in the form of points considered likely to belong to darts delivered by spear throwers. However, these projects were of little avail, for Ras Kassai of Tigray had by this time (1872) risen to supreme power in the north.  The resistance was largely centered in the province of Eritrea. They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. Twenty years later, the Somali region of Ethiopia remained under-developed and insecure. Mauri, Arnaldo (2009), "The re-establishment of the national monetary and banking system in Ethiopia, 1941–1963". His mother, Empress Mentewab played a major role in Iyasu's reign, as well as her grandson Iyoas too. The inscriptions depict a trading group bringing back myrrh trees, sacks of myrrh, elephant tusks, incense, gold, various fragmented wood, and exotic animals. : An Examination of Race, Ethnicity, And Othering in the Hebrew Bible. Bruce, James, Jean-Henri Castéra, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, Pierre Plassan, Ferret, Pierre Victor Ad., Joseph Germain Galinier. The Egyptians sometimes called the Land of Punt, "God's-Land", due to the "large quantities of gold, ivory, and myrrh that could be easily obtained". In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The Axumite Kingdom is recorded once again as controlling part – if not all – of Yemen in the 6th century CE. Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 under Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history and his reign was followed by Yohannes IV who was killed in action in 1889. Mauri, Arnaldo (2003), "The early development of banking in Ethiopia". (1972) pp. One inscription found at Axum, states that he conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned thanks to his father, the god Mars, for his victory. Under the early Solomonic dynasty Ethiopia engaged in military reforms and imperial expansion which left it dominating the Horn of Africa, especially under the rule of Amda Seyon I. David Buxton remarked that the Zagwe achieved 'a degree of stability and technical advancement seldom equalled in Abyssinian history'. The emperor was imprisoned and would die a year later. Finally under Zara Yaqob a compromise was made between the new Egyptian bishops and the Ewostathians at the Council of Mitmaq in 1450, restoring unity to the Ethiopian church. By the early 1970s Emperor Haile Selassie's advanced age was becoming apparent. Surely enough, when the British completed their mission and were leaving the country, they rewarded Kassa for his cooperation with artillery, muskets, rifles, and munitions, all in all worth approximately £500,000. Bruce subsequently returned to Egypt at the end of 1772 by way of the upper Atbara, through the kingdom of Sennar, the Nile, and the Korosko desert. Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, had been bought from the local sultan in March 1870 by an Italian company, which, after acquiring more land in 1879 and 1880, was bought out by the Italian government in 1882. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Axum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time. The architecture of the Zagwe shows a continuation of earlier Aksumite traditions, as can be seen at Lalibela and at Yemrehana Krestos Church.  The Derg decided in November 1974 to pursue war in Eritrea rather than seek a negotiated settlement.  Only 3,200 Italian farmers moved to colonize farm areas (mostly in the Shewa Governorate), where they were under sporadic attack by pro-Haile Selassie guerrillas until the end of 1938. Coins showing the royal portrait began to be minted under King Endubis toward the end of the 3rd century CE. Simien Mountains, rising above the Ethiopian Plateau in northwestern Ethiopia. Wubit waited for the accession of her own son to make a bid for the power wielded for so long by Mentewab and her relatives from Qwara. Exactly when the new dynasty came to power is unknown, as is the number of kings in the dynasty. It was officially endorsed by 81% of voters, and in accordance with this new constitution, the country was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on September 10, 1987, and Mengistu became president. Lt. Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam assumed power as head of state and Derg chairman, after having his two predecessors killed, as well as tens of thousands of other suspected opponents.
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