ecgberht, king of wessex

Egbert remained in exile in Francia at this time but, when Beorhtric died in 802 CE, Charlemagne seems to have supported Egbert’s bid for power and he became king of Wessex. The entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles for 825 CE reads: Egbert, king of the West-Saxons, and Beornwulf, king of Mercia, fought a battle at Wilton [modern day Wiltshire], in which Egbert gained the victory, but there was great slaughter on both sides. Linking Egbert to Cerdic would have enhanced his status and it was a fairly common practice for the scribes of kings to attribute to their liege impressive pedigrees even if they could not be proven. [22] The Hwicce were defeated, though Weohstan was killed as well as Æthelmund. See Stenton, P. Wormald, "The Ninth Century", p. 138, in Campbell, P. Wormald, "The Ninth Century", p. 140, in Campbell. Dix ans plus tard, une charte datée du 19 août 825 indique qu'Ecgberht se trouve à nouveau en campagne en Domnonée. It is probable that Egbert came from Kent, however, and was descended from the king Egbert of Kent (r. 664-673 CE) or, almost certainly, Egbert II (r.765-c.779 CE) the father of Eahlmund. La Chronique anglo-saxonne rapporte que Beorhtric et Offa contraignent Ecgberht à l'exil en Francie pendant trois années. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/King_Egbert_of_Wessex/. [37] It is significant that Wiglaf was still able to call together such a group of notables; the West Saxons, even if they were able to do so, held no such councils. Egbert is often characterized by historians as operating outside the boundaries of acceptable diplomacy. In some cases a king will appear on a charter as a subregulus, or "subking", making it clear that he has an overlord. His succession was contested by Ecgberht, but he was defeated by Beorhtric, maybe with Offa's assistance. Les conséquences d'Ellendune dépassent la perte de pouvoir mercienne immédiate dans le Sud-Est. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. La Chronique anglo-saxonne ne précise pas qui était l'assaillant. [14], Ealhmund does not appear to have long survived in power: there is no record of his activities after 784. King Egbert of Wessex. It is probable that he did engage in duplicity and back-door deals to achieve his ends but in this, he would have been no different than Charlemagne or any other leader, past or present. D'autres indices témoignent des bonnes relations entre Beorhtric et Offa : le premier épouse une fille du second nommée Eadburh en 789, et les monnaies frappées au Wessex sous le règne de Beohrtric suivent le modèle mercien[12]. And the same year King Egbert conquered the kingdom of Mercia, and all that was south of the Humber, and he was the eighth king who was 'Wide-ruler'. "The Origins of the Line of Egbert, King of the West Saxons, 802 – 839", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ecgberht,_King_of_Wessex&oldid=969912337, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 July 2020, at 03:18. In the 780s Ecgberht was forced into exile to Charlemagne's court in the Frankish Empire by Offa of Mercia and Beorhtric of Wessex, but on Beorhtric's death in 802 Ecgberht returned and took the throne. Ecgberht (771/775 – 839), also spelled Egbert, Ecgbert, or Ecgbriht, Ecgbeorht, was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. Au sud-ouest, Ecgberht est vaincu par les Danois en 836 à Carhampton, mais il remporte une victoire sur eux et leurs alliés bretons à Hingston Down, dans les Cornouailles, en 838[32]. Egbert died of natural causes in 839 CE and his son Aethelwulf succeeded him without opposition due to support from the church. Evidence of the relationship between kings can come from charters, which were documents which granted land to followers or to churchmen, and which were witnessed by the kings who had power to grant the land. Néanmoins, le Kent, le Sussex et le Surrey restent acquis au Wessex, et Ecgberht les attribue à son fils Æthelwulf, qui y règne sous son autorité. The text says "iii" for three, but this may have been a scribal error, with the correct reading being "xiii", that is, thirteen years. [25], Despite the loss of dominance, Ecgberht's military successes fundamentally changed the political landscape of Anglo-Saxon England. Ecgberht meurt en 839. Plus tard en 829, selon la Chronique anglo-saxonne, Ecgberht reçoit la soumission des Northumbriens à Dore (aujourd'hui dans la banlieue de Sheffield) ; le roi de Northumbrie est alors probablement Eanred[29]. En 825, Ecgberht remporte la bataille d'Ellendun contre Beornwulf de Mercie et s'empare dans la foulée de l'Essex, du Kent, du Sussex et du Surrey, régions qui se trouvaient jusqu'alors dans l'orbite mercienne. This makes it likely that Beornwulf still had authority in Kent at this date, as Baldred's overlord; hence Baldred was apparently still in power. Les richesses d'Ecgberht, acquises par droit de conquête, l'ont sans doute grandement aidé à acheter le soutien des ecclésiastiques du Sud-Est, et le sens de l'économie que dénote son testament indique qu'il comprenait l'importance de la fortune personnelle pour un roi[44]. "[44][46][47], Although nothing is known of any other claimants to the throne, it is likely that there were other surviving descendants of Cerdic (the supposed progenitor of all the kings of Wessex) who might have contended for the kingdom. La date tardive de cette source et le fait que cette « Redburga » n'apparaisse nulle part ailleurs incitent la plupart des historiens à ne pas la prendre en considération[N 1]. L'expansion anglo-saxonne en Cornouailles est mal documentée, mais les toponymes fournissent quelques indices[42]. Cette victoire donne à Ecgberht le contrôle des monnaies londoniennes, et il frappe des pièces en tant que roi de Mercie[26]. Historians do not agree on Ecgberht's ancestry. Cependant, les réseaux commerciaux rhénans et francs s'effondrent dans les années 820 ou 830, et Louis le Pieux doit affronter une série de révoltes jusqu'à sa mort en 840, entraînant vraisemblablement le retrait de son soutien à Ecgberht. Considérant la rivalité entre les deux hommes, la succession ne s'est vraisemblablement pas faite en douceur, même si la Chronique anglo-saxonne se contente de rapporter la mort de Beorhtric et celle d'un ealdorman nommé Worr sans élaborer davantage, tandis qu'une tradition ultérieure accuse Eadburh, la femme de Beorhtric, de l'avoir empoisonné[3]. [14] Nothing more is recorded of Ecgberht's relations with Mercia for more than twenty years after this battle. Le compte-rendu du concile de Kingston et une autre charte de la même année contiennent la même expression : une condition de la cession est que « nous-mêmes et nos héritiers bénéficierons toujours à l'avenir de l'amitié ferme et inébranlable de l'archevêque Ceolnoth et de sa congrégation à Christ Church[45] ». The list is often thought to be incomplete, omitting as it does some dominant Mercian kings such as Penda and Offa. Les chartes du Kent décrivent Ecgberht et Æthelwulf comme « rois des Saxons de l'Ouest, ainsi que du peuple de Kent ». Ce dernier domine le reste du Sud, mais le titre de « suzerain de l'Angleterre du Sud » n'apparaît jamais dans ses chartes, probablement en raison de l'indépendance du Wessex[18]. Offa died in 796 CE and Ecgfrith, his successor, soon after. Il est possible que les Merciens aient compté sur le soutien de l'archevêque de Cantorbéry Wulfred, contraint par Ecgberht à interrompre ses frappes monétaires lorsque le roi commence à produire ses propres monnaies à Rochester et à Cantorbéry[24], ce même roi qui s'empare de propriétés de l'archevêché[25]. On ne sait rien des relations d'Ecgberht avec la Mercie durant les deux premières décennies de son règne. Throughout the character’s appearance in Vikings, he is routinely depicted as clever, conniving, and untrustworthy which, as noted, has no historical basis but may draw upon supposition concerning his rise to power and consolidation of Wessex. Ecgberht est inhumé à Winchester, tout comme son fils Æthelwulf, son petit-fils Alfred le Grand et son arrière-petit-fils Édouard l'Ancien. His father was Ealhmund of Kent. One plausible explanation for the events of these years is that Wessex's fortunes were to some degree dependent on Carolingian support. Æthelwulf drove Baldred, the king of Kent, north over the Thames, and according to the Chronicle, the men of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex then all submitted to Æthelwulf "because earlier they were wrongly forced away from his relatives. Ecgberht was unable to maintain this dominant position, and within a year Wiglaf regained the throne of Mercia. Le roi Baldred est contraint de s'enfuir au nord de la Tamise, et la Chronique anglo-saxonne affirme que les habitants du Kent, de l'Essex, du Surrey et du Sussex se soumettent à Æthelwulf « parce qu'ils avaient été jadis arrachés de force à sa famille[21] ». This marked the high point of Ecgberht's influence. [41] Mercia remained a threat, however; Ecgberht's son Æthelwulf, established as king of Kent, gave estates to Christ Church, Canterbury, probably to counter any influence the Mercians might still have there.

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